# The Symbol of Pentagram

## Milchar and Merle Corey

Pentagram is now the main symbol of Satanism.

Each angle of Pentagram corresponds to one of the five basic elements in occult philosophy: Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Spirit.

The element of Earth symbolizes the forces of nature and life in all its manifestations. This element provides birth, life and death, health and sexuality, all natural instincts. It's the beast inside the human.

The element of Fire symbolizes forces that are changing everything in the world. Fire is power and energy, construction and destruction — the one can't exist without the other.

The element of Air symbolizes knowledge, freedom and boundless opportunities, everything new and young. The forces of Air break all dogmas and overcome all obstacles.

The element of Water symbolizes time, fantasy, mysteries — the things that are not visible, but have a great influence on everything that happens in the world.

And, finally, the element of Spirit symbolizes the Satanist's personality and force of will. Important is that this angle of Pentagram points downwards — to its user, not upwards — to someone/somewhere else.

The meaning of the whole Pentagram is the coordinated action of the elements ruled by the Satanist's spirit. If the angle of Spirit were directed upwards, it would mean the elements being ruled by someone else.

Pentagram is an ancient symbol. Archeologists found it graven on the monuments dated back to the 7th millennium BCE. Maybe Pentagram was known even much earlier.

Pentagram was used by many ancient civilizations: the Sumerians and the Babylonians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Persians, the Chinese, the Celts and the Native Americans. The Egyptians called Pentagram "The star of Isis" and viewed it as a symbol of Mother Earth. The Celts named Pentagram "Druid's footprint", the Greeks called it "Pentalpha" ('the symbol of five Alpha letters'). Every culture used Pentagram as a magical symbol.

The Ancient Egyptian writing system included a pentagram-shaped character with the meaning "to teach", "to educate".

In Babylon, Pentagram was a symbol of the king's power over the North, the South, the East, the West and the sky. Also the Babylonians (and the Celts too) used the Pentagram symbol as a magic shield against diseases. They drew Pentagram on their houses above the door or windows.

For the first time, Pentagram as a geometrical form was studied by Pythagoras. He treated Pentagram as a symbol of perfection and made it the secret sign of his school of philosophy and mathematics.

For some odd reasons, the Satanic Pentagram is conventionally called "inverted", while the Pentagram with an angle turned upwards is considered "straight". In any books and articles about Pythagoras and other ancient mathematicians the "Pythagorean Star" is always drawn with an upwards-directed angle. But really the ancient Greeks drew the Pentagram the same way as now Satanists do. Look at these ancient Greek coins, for example:

(image taken from http://www.geocities.com/go_darkness/)

Now let's look on the Pentagram from a mathematician's point of view.

All angles of the Pentagram are 36° multiple.

The ABC triangle is equal to the AQD triangle.

AB = AQ

The main property of the Pentagram is its being a geometrical form of the "golden division", the Fibonacci number F = sin 72° / sin 36° = 1.61803... This peculiarity of Pentagram was found first by Leonardo da Vinci.

The ratio of the distances between the opposite and the neighboring nodes of the Pentagram is

AC / AB = sin ABC / sin BCA = sin 108° / sin 36° = sin 72° / sin 36° = 1.61803...

The diagonals of the Pentagram are also crossed following the "golden division":

AQ / CQ = AB / (AC - AB) = AB / (F*AB - AB) = 1 / (1.61803... - 1) = 1.61803...

The ratio of the areas of the ABC triangle and the ACD triangle is

(0.5 (F*AB)² sin 36°) / (0.5 AB² sin 108°) = ((sin 72° / sin 36°)² sin 36°) / (sin 72°) = 1.61803...

It's truly not surprising that Pythagoras treated Pentagram as the symbol of perfection!